Production of Autoantibodies (Antibodies against ones own tissues or chemical substances) or self-reactive T-cells.
__________________________________________________(Horror Autotoxicus) The need not to react to self. Deliberately attempted to immunize animals against their own tissues.
EXAMPLES OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
Type I ? Due to antibodies against pathogens
Type II ? Antibodies react with cell-surface antigens
Type III (Immune Complex) ?IgM, IgG, complement immune complexes deposit in tissues
Type IV ? Mediated by __________________________________
Rheumatic Fever and Acute Glomerulonephritis
Follows infection with ___________________________Streptococci. Cross-reactive Antibody can bind to heart, cartilage, muscle, and kidney tissue. (RF ~15,000 deaths/yr US.)
Attachment of AutoAbs to receptors for Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) on follicle cells of the thyroid gland. Stimulation of follicle cells goverproduction of thyroxin.
(Bypass of feedback control) Hyperthyroidism: Goiter, increased metabolic rate, nervousness, tremor, difficulty concentrating, heat intolerance, diarrhea, and palpitations. ______________________________________________________________________________________
AutoAbs bind to _________________________________________ receptors at neuromuscular junctions g
causes degradation of receptors g muscle weakness and fatigue gloss of muscle function gparalysis grespiratory failure and death ______________________________________________________________________________________
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE or Lupus) AutoAbs produced against a variety of _________________________________________________. Most involved: Kidneys, Bone marrow, Skin, Nervous system,Joints, Muscles, Heart andG.I. tract.
Symptoms: Fever, skin rashes, arthritis, effusions (fluid build up) and inflammation in pleural, pericardial, peritoneal cavities and CNS. Can cause a life-threatening, progressive, immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. 90% of cases are in females of childbearing age.
Rare in males (Klinefelter?s syndrome XXY) ______________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________ Associated with advanced age (80% of population) Characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. AutoAbs (Rheumatoid factor) form immune complexes with IgG gbind to synovial membrane of joints g activates complement g scar tissue and joint destruction
T-cells destroy the follicle cells that produce thyroxin.
Hypothyroidism: Malaise, lethargy, pain, fever, and increased risk of pyogenic infection. ______________________________________________________________________________________
Diabetes Mellitus Type I (Juvenile-onset/Insulin dependent)
T-cells attack islet cells of the ______________________________________ g inflammatory reaction g cell lyses g decreased insulin secretion. ______________________________________________________________________________________